20 steroidal saponins

Botany
Talong is a coarse, usually branched, prickly or unarmed, erect, half-woody plant, growing to a height of to 1 meter. Leaves are ovate to oblong-ovate, 10 to 25 centimeters long, stellate-hairy beneath, and irregularly or shallowly lobed at the margins. Flowers are axillary, purplish, about centimeters long. Fruit is fleshy, smooth, purple, up to 25 centimeters long, extremely variable in shape, round, oblong, or cylindric-oblong.

Distribution
- Cultivated throughout the Philippines for the edible fruit; the elongated variety, the most cultivated.
- Nowhere spontaneous.
- Cultivated in all warm countries.

Steroid isolation , depending on context, is the isolation of chemical matter required for chemical structure elucidation, derivitzation or degradation chemistry, biological testing, and other research needs (generally milligrams to grams, but often more [38] or the isolation of "analytical quantities" of the substance of interest (where the focus is on identifying and quantifying the substance (for example, in biological tissue or fluid). The amount isolated depends on the analytical method, but is generally less than one microgram. [39] [ page needed ] The methods of isolation to achieve the two scales of product are distinct, but include extraction , precipitation, adsorption , chromatography , and crystallization . In both cases, the isolated substance is purified to chemical homogeneity; combined separation and analytical methods, such as LC-MS , are chosen to be "orthogonal"—achieving their separations based on distinct modes of interaction between substance and isolating matrix—to detect a single species in the pure sample. Structure determination refers to the methods to determine the chemical structure of an isolated pure steroid, using an evolving array of chemical and physical methods which have included NMR and small-molecule crystallography . [2] : 10–19 Methods of analysis overlap both of the above areas, emphasizing analytical methods to determining if a steroid is present in a mixture and determining its quantity. [39]

In mild cases of toxicity (atrial fibrillation with a slow ventricular response or occasional ectopic beats), temporary withdrawal of the drug and electrocardiogram monitoring is sufficient. 6 Gastric lavage or emesis together with supportive measures, such as electrolyte replacements, antiarrhythmics (eg, lidocaine, phenytoin), and atropine, have been used to manage acute poisonings. Digoxin-specific Fab antibody fragments may be used in managing acute intoxications caused by digitalis and related cardioactive glycosides; however, their efficacy remains unproven by controlled clinical trials. 13 , 25 , 28 , 29

20 steroidal saponins

20 steroidal saponins

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