Anaemia is commonly present in both ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease. Due to raised levels of inflammatory cytokines which lead to the increased expression of hepcidin , parenteral iron is the preferred treatment option as it bypasses the gastrointestinal system, has lower incidence of adverse events and enables quicker treatment. Hepcidin itself is also an anti-inflammatory agent. In the murine model very low levels of iron restrict hepcidin synthesis, worsening the inflammation that is present.  Enteral nutrition has been found to be efficient to improve hemoglobin level in patients with inflammatory bowel disease, especially combined with erythropoietin. 
Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are well known to be associated with serious upper gastrointestinal complications, such as peptic ulcer, bleeding, perforation, and obstruction. Recently, attention has been mainly focused on the small bowel injuries caused by NSAIDs, and new endoscopic techniques such as capsule endoscopy and double balloon endoscopy can help in detecting such injuries. This article reviewed the epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and treatment of small bowel injuries caused by NSAIDs. Small bowel injures by NSAIDs might occur with a similar frequency and extent as those observed in the upper gastrointestinal tract. The pathogenesis of NSAID-induced enteropathy is complex and not clearly understood. The various lesions observed in the small bowel, including petechiae, reddened folds, loss of villi, erosions, and ulcers can be detected by capsule endoscopy. A drug that could prevent or treat NSAID-induced enteropathy has not yet been developed. Therefore, further investigations should be performed to elucidate the pathogenesis of such enteropathy and develop suitable preventive and treatment strategies.