Some bodybuilders and athletes use trenbolone esters for their muscle-building and otherwise performance-enhancing effects.  Such use is illegal in the United States and many other countries. The DEA classifies trenbolone and its esters as Schedule III controlled substances under the Controlled Substances Act .  Trenbolone is classified as a Schedule 4 drug in Canada  and a class C drug with no penalty for personal use or possession in the United Kingdom .  Use or possession of steroids without a prescription is a crime in Australia .  The infamous "duchess" cocktail administered to Russian athletes at the Sochi Winter Olympics consisted of oxandrolone , a metenolone ester, and a trenbolone ester. 
The EC made the scientific claim that the hormones used in treating cattle remain in the tissue, specifically the hormone, 17-beta estradiol .  However, despite this evidence the EC declared there was no clear link to health risks in humans for the other five provisionally banned hormones. The EC has also found high amounts of hormones in areas where there are dense cattle lots. This increase in hormones in the water has affected waterways and nearby wild fish.  Contamination of North American waterways by hormones would not, however, have any direct impact on European consumers or their health.